Aging and Long-Term Care (10 Hours)

In the United States, the population age 65 and over numbered 49.2 million in 2016.  They represented ____ of the population.  About one in every seven Americans.

3.2% 7.2% 15.2% 23.2%

The population age 65 and over has increased from 37.2 million in 2006 to 49.2 million in 2016 (a 33% increase) and is projected to _____ in 2060.

Almost double to 98 million Almost triple to 147 million Decrease by 1/3 or 33% to 32 million Decrease by 1/2 to 24.6 million

Research studies have proposed the challenges in dealing with the growing number of elderlies are in four overall generics. They are all of the following, EXCEPT:

Short-term care that works better than anything we have in place today. Use the advances in medicine and behavioral health to keep the elderly active and healthy. Community services need to be available to older adults so their active care needs and activities are uninterrupted. Cultural biases towards the elderly need to be refined and altered so they can integrate more easily into their communities

It is one of the elderly care issues wherein participants can protect its health through joining cooking class, reading books, and learning new hobbies.

Caregiving and care coordination Mobility Mental health and substance abuse Mental stimulation

This elderly care issue is an ongoing challenge among the elderlies that needs to be addressed. It is oftentimes described when an elderly person had already lost their significant other, with no kids who could look after them because they are either out of the house or lives miles away.___________occurs with many elderlies, yet they will rarely tell anyone about it  nor do they know how to end it.

Social isolation Age discrimination Advance directives in writing Elderly abuse

Mild hearing loss can impair speech processing, particularly if speech is rapid or if multiple talkers in large rooms generate reverberant noise.  Increased social isolation mediates the observed associations between hearing loss and the following except:

Depression Cognitive decline Reduced quality of life Enuresis

By age 85, approximately 20% of people meet criteria for _______ (meaningful loss of muscle mass and strength.)

Myostatin-related muscle hypertrophy Au-Kline syndrome Sarcopenia Adermatoglyphia

Cardiovascular disease remains the most common cause of death of older adults.  This category includes the following except:

Chronic Karkinos Chronic ischemic heart disease Congestive heart failure Arrhythmia

Diabetes rates have been increasing as populations age and become more overweight.  Doing the following will help with the symptoms of diabetes except:

Regular foot examinations Regular walking Have individualized management approaches Increase calcium intake

Walking speed measurements can be used to predict future community abulation, falls, disability and risk of mortality.  The following are benefits to measurement of walking speed except:

It is quick It requires no special medical equipment It is supra-renal It adds no significant cost to clinical care

Falls account for more than half of injuries among older adults.  The following can be included as part of a multifactorial fall prevention program except:

Physical activity Vitamin D supplementation Balance exercise Echocardiogram

Walking speed measurements can be used to predict future community abulation, falls, disability and risk of mortality.  The following are benefits to measurement of walking speed except:

It is quick It requires no special medical equipment It is supra-renal It adds no significant cost to clinical care

True or False?  Being married and being wealthy predict longer survival and the benefit of marriage seems stronger for men than women.

True False

Polypharmacy is defined as:

The use of different pharmacies to fill prescriptions The use of concomitant use of five or more medications by a single patient The use of too many medications for the same problem The use of multiple billings for each pharmacy

Hospitalizations are common among people over age 85 and associated with functional decline.  Providing more ________ in the home could help to prevent hospital complications such as functional decline and iatrogenic infection.

Socialization Entertainment Acute care Fast food delivery

Advance directives may enable patients to exert some control over their end-of-life care.  These directives can give instruction on the following except:

cardiopulmonary resuscitation mechanical ventilation tube feeding will bequests

True or False?  Depression is a normal part of aging.

True False

A depressed mood that lasts for at least two years…

Psychotic depression Persistent depressive disorder Seasonal affective disorder Bipolar disorder

If medications do not reduce the symptoms of depression, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) may be an option to explore.  The following statements about ECT are true except:

It is often performed on an outpatient basis. It is painful, and you can feel the electrical impulses The patient is awake and alert within one hour of treatment May cause some side effects, including confusion, disorientation, and memory loss

In this stage of Alzheimer’s Disease, damage occurs in areas of the brain that control language, reasoning, sensory processing, and conscious thought.  They may be unable to learn new things, carry out multistep tasks such as getting dressed, or cope with new situations.  People at this stage may have hallucinations, delusions, and paranoia and may behave impulsively.

Severe Alzheimer’s Disease Moderate Alzheimer’s Disease Mild Alzheimer’s Disease Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

The best time to think about long-term care is…

Before you need it Once you get sick After your family gets tired of taking care of you When your healthcare professional brings it up

It is also known as residential care facilities. These are small private facilities, usually with 20 or fewer residents.

Board and care homes Assisted living Nursing homes Continuing care retirement communities

It is also called life-care communities. It offers different levels of service in one location. Many of them offer independent housing (houses or apartments), assisted living, and skilled nursing care all on one campus.

Board and care homes FalseAssisted living Nursing homes Continuing care retirement communities

According to the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, an estimate of ____________people on average ages 65 and older are treated in hospital emergency rooms each year for injuries associated with consumer products.

2 million 1.8 million 1.4 million 3 million

These are installed on every level of the house, outside sleeping areas and inside bedrooms since it is critical for the early detection of fire and could mean the difference between life and death.

Smoke alarms Fire hose Fire extinguisher None of the above

This device can provide power even when they are no longer providing shock protection. 

TrueVoltage regulator Transformer GFCI Receptacle None of the above

The following are safety measures for entryways and home exteriors, EXCEPT:

The porch, entryway, and approach to the entryway are well-illuminated. The light switch is located near the entryway Outside steps, entryways, and approaches to the entryway are in good condition and are slip resistant. Outside steps has no handrails that are easily graspable.

In this kind of physical activity, also called as endurance activity or cardio activity, the body’s large muscles move in rhythmic manner for a sustained period of time.

Aerobic activity Muscle-strengthening activity Balance activities Flexibility activities

This kind of activity, which includes resistance training and weight-lifting, causes the body’s muscles to work or hold against an applied force or weight.

Aerobic activity Muscle-strengthening activity Balance activities Flexibility activities

These kinds of activities enhance the ability of a joint to move through a full range of motion. 

Aerobic activity Muscle-strengthening activity Balance activities Flexibility activities

The following are the health benefits associated with regular physical activity, EXCEPT:

Lower risk of cardiovascular disease Lower risk of hypertension Lower risk of type 2 diabetes All of the above.

It is the ability to perform large-muscle, whole body exercise at moderate-to-vigorous intensities for extended periods of time.

Musculoskeletal fitness Cardiorespiratory Fitness Flexibility Balance

This beneficial effect of increasing physical activity is closely tied to overload. Once a person reaches a certain fitness level, he or she is able to progress to higher levels of physical activity by continued overload and adaptation.

Progression Overload Specificity None of the Above

Both _____________and __________ physical activities are recommended to improve blood pressure.

TrueAerobic, muscle-strengthening Balance, flexibility speed, balance None of the above

The following are benefits of physical activity on people with osteoarthritis, EXCEPT:

Decreased pain Improved physical pain Improved health-related quality of life Lower risk of cardiovascular disease mortality.

Older adults should aim to do at least ___________ minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity a week.

150 to 300 minutes 75 to 150 minutes 20-30 minutes 10-15 minutes

The following are examples of aerobic activities, EXCEPT:

Walking Hiking Water aerobics Carrying groceries

This describes the absolute number, proportion, and representativeness of the person who participates in a given program:

Reach Adaptation Effectiveness Adoption

It is the degree to which staff members follow the program as it was originally designed. It also addresses consistency of delivery and cost, using the original model as the standard.

Effectiveness Adoption Implementation Maintenance

It is an evidence-based physical activity/behavior change program developed at the center for Research on Health and Aging at the University of Illinois at Chicago. It targets older adults (60 ) with osteoarthritis (OA) of the lower extremities.

Fit and Strong Enhanced Fitness a and b None of the above

Elder abuse is a growing problem and can include all of the following except:

Physical or sexual abuse Emotional abuse or neglect Abandonment or financial exploitations Reverse mortgage convalescit

Reverse mortgage convalescit

Sexual abuse Neglect Physical abuse Financial or material exploitation

 The following are signs and symptoms of sexual abuse among elderlies, EXCEPT:

Bruises around the breast or genital area Unexplained venereal disease or genital infections Unexplained vaginal or anal bleeding An elder’s sudden change in behavior

 It is defined as the infliction of anguish, pain, or distress through verbal or nonverbal acts. It includes but is not limited to verbal assaults, insults, threats, intimidation, humiliation, and harassment among elderlies.

Sexual abuse Verbal abuse Neglect Abandonment

It is defined as the refusal or failure to fulfill any part of a person’s obligations or duties to an elder.

Physical abuse Neglect Abandonment None of the above

It is characterized as the behavior of an elderly person that threatens his or her own health and safety.

Self-neglect Emotional abuse Physical abuse Abandonment

This is the first step in preventing violence in which it aims to understand who, what, when, where, and how associated with it.

Identify the risk and protective factors Develop and test prevention strategies Assure widespread adoption Define and monitor the problem

It is the characteristic that increases the likelihood of a person becoming a victim or perpetrator of violence.

Risk factor Protective factor Both a and b None of the above

It is a nonprofit online service that prescreens and posts pictures and bios of local volunteers who want to visit older people and help them by doing basic chores.

Faith-based caregiving Senior corps Elder helps None of the above

It is a branch of the federal Corporation for National & Community Service. Its Senior Companions program matches volunteers older than 55 with seniors living independently to provide companionship, help with daily tasks and a break for family caregivers.

Faith-based caregiving Senior corps Elder helps None of the above

Medicare is the federal government program that provides health care coverage (health insurance) if you are __ , under __ and receiving Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) for a certain amount of time, or under __ and with End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD).

67, 63, 65 62, 64, 67 65, 65, 65 62, 62, 62

Given the possibility of asymptomatic cases, especially in areas of widespread transmission, how far should the caregiver/resident be from other family members?

1 meter 3 meters 5 meters 7 meters

How many days should a symptomatic patient be isolated?

10 days after symptom onset plus at least 3 days without symptoms 10 days 14 days 1 day

 What kind of cleaning agents are recommended for all horizontal and frequently touched surfaces?

Hospital-grade and disinfecting agents Dishwashing liquid Soap water

National and local governments should encourage behavior changes to prevent the spread of COVID-19 and promote general well-being during the outbreak. In addition to conventional health communication, insights from behavioral science such as _________ can be implemented to provide positive reinforcement and indirectly influence individual behaviors and decisions.

Signages Nudges both a and b None of the above