Motivational Interviewing

According to American Psychiatric Association’s (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5; APA, 2013),Alcohol Use Disorder is defined as

a diagnosis applicable to a person who uses alcohol and experiences at least 2 of the 11 symptoms in a 12-month period. A diagnosis of substance abuse A diagnosis of PTSD A diagnosis associated with drug abuse

Substance Abuse Disorder or SUD, according to DSM-5 (APA, 2013), is a medical illness caused by 

Repeated misuse of medicines Repeated use of maintenance medicines Repeated misuse of a substance or substances Repeated misuse of alcohol

Motivation is a critical element of behavior change that predicts client abstinence and reductions in substance use.

True False

SDT is known as

Self-understanding Theory Self-reliance Theory Self-efficacy Theory Self-determination Theory

SDT describes to kinds of motivation. These are

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation General and Specific Motivation Inductive and Deductive Motivation Personal and Family Motivation

According to Miller & Moyers, 2015, there are two components of motivation that predict good treatment outcomes are

Behavioral therapy and Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) Developing an exercise program and changing irrational beliefs The importance clients associate with changes and confidence in their ability to make changes Your beliefs and expectations of others

According to Connors et al., 2013, in the Earlier Perspective of Motivational Interviewing, resistance is a characteristic of 

Unmotivated Motivated Uninspired Inspired

According to Kelly et al., 2017, “Natural Recovery” means

Working collaboratively with clients Resolves an alcohol or drug use problem without assistance Spotting warning signs Repeated behavior

According to Prochaska & DiClemente, 1984, the change process is a journey through stages in which people typically think about behavior change, initiate behavior change, and maintain new behaviors. This model is later then called as the

Uncommon Natural Change Common Natural Change Transtheoretical Natural Change

Precontemplation, according to Connors et al., 2013, is when

People who use substances are not considering change and do not intend to change in the foreseeable future. People who use substances are open to changes People who use substances are unaware of the substance abuse People who use substances are aware of the misuse

Miller and Sanchez (1994) identified six common elements of effective motivational counseling, which are summarized by the acronym FRAMES that means

Frame, Reason, Advice, Menu, Emersion, and Self-Reliance Frame, Responsibility, Addiction, Maintenance, Empathetic, and Self-Reliance Feedback, Reason, Advice, Maintenance, Empathetic, and Self-efficacy Feedback, Responsibility, Advice, Menu, Empathetic, and Self-efficacy

MET is an early offshoot of the “drinker’s check-up,” which gave feedback nonjudgmentally to clients about their drinking. MET is the acronym of 

Motivational Enhancement Therapy Motivational Enhancement Theory Motivational Engagement Therapy Motivational Engagement Theory

One of the strategies for presenting personalized feedback to clients includes

Walk through pain with clients Asking about the client’s initial reaction to the tests Not asking the client for feedback Not asking the client about his/experience with the test

In World War I, military psychiatrists first realized that motivational interventions, done at the right time, could return many stressed soldiers to duty. To remember this method, they used the acronym PIES which stands for:

Proximity, Intervention, Supply Proximity, Intervention, Sample Proximity, Immediacy, Simplicity Proximity, Immediacy, Shortage

SBIRT was specifically developed for nonspecialized treatment settings. SBIRT stands for:

Self-Efficacy, Brief Intervention, and Recognition of Treatment Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment Self-Efficacy, Brief Intervention, and Return to Treatment Screening, Brief Intervention, and Relapse to Treatment

According to (Van Horn et al., 2015, giving clients choices for treatment goals and types of available service increases their motivation to participate in treatment.

True False

Self-efficacy is one of the options that you can offer to your client for Motivational Interviewing. According to Kaden & Litt, 2011, Self-efficacy can be built by:

being supportive, identifying their strengths, reviewing past successes, and expressing optimism and confidence in their ability to change by accommodating their needs by neglecting their needs by lecturing them about substance abuse

In SUD recovery, the client weighs the pros and cons of changing versus not changing substance use behaviors. You assist this process by asking the client to articulate the positive and negative aspects of using substances. This is process is called:

Deceptive Balancing Decisional Balancing Delusional Balancing Divine Balancing

DDMI is a two-session intervention for substance misuse in clients with psychotic disorders (Fiszdon et al., 2015). It includes accommodations for cognitive impairments. DDMI is an acronym for:

Dual Decision for Motivational Interviewing Dual Diagnosis Motivational Intervention Dual Decision for Motivational Intervention Dual Diagnosis Motivational Interviewing

According to Nunes, Richmond, Marzano, Swenson, & Lockhart, 2017, the purpose of a BI is:

to counsel individuals, using a motivational approach, about substance misuse patterns; increase awareness about the negative effects of substance misuse; and advise them to limit or stop their use altogether, depending on the circumstances. To discourage individuals to stop the medications To encourage individuals to continue the substance abuse To motivate individuals to the substance misuse

SBIRT was specifically developed for nonspecialized treatment settings. SBIRT stands for:

Self-Efficacy, Brief Intervention, and Recognition of Treatment Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment Self-Efficacy, Brief Intervention, and Return to Treatment Screening, Brief Intervention, and Relapse to Treatment

MI is a counseling style used in response to:

The extent of cooperation of the client Ambivalence about substance use and change is normal and is an important motivational barrier to substance use behavior change. Language Barriers between the client and the counselor The willingness of the client

According to Miller & Rollnick, 2013, the spirit of MI comprises the following elements:

Culture, Gender, Age, and Education Gender, Age, Geographic Location, and Culture Partnership, Acceptance, Compassion, & Evocation Motivation, Culture, Age and Gender

MI is a counseling technique.

True False

Ambivalence is a key concept in


DARN-CAT, according to Miller & Rollnick, 2013, is 

Desire to change, Ability to change, Reasons to change, Need to change, Commitment, Activation, and Taking Steps Desire not to change, Ability not to change, Reasons not to change, Need not to change, Commitment, Activation, and Taking Steps Desire to continue the abuse, Ability to continue the abuse, Reasons to continue the abuse, Need to continue the abuse, Commitment, Activation, and Taking Steps Desire to be motivated, Ability to be motivated, Reasons to be motivated, Need to be motivated, Commitment, Activation, and Taking Steps

According to Miller & Rollnick, 2013, Core Skills of MI is OARS which stands for

Open Question, Appreciation, Reflective Listening, Summarizing Open questions, Affirming, Reflective Listening, Summarizing Open Questions, Accumulation, Reflection, Listening, Summarizing Open Questions, Accreditation, Recognition, Listening, Summarizing

According to Miller & Rollnick, 2013, Reflective Listening is the key component if expressing:

Empathy Motivation Encouragement Inspiration

There are two type of Reflective Listening. These are:

Simple and Self-exploration Reflections Complex and Moderate Reflections Simple and Moderate Reflections Simple and Complex Reflections

There are several types of summarization in MI according to Miller & Rollnick, 2013. These are:

Behavioral and Collective Summary Inspiring and Motivational Summary Collecting, Linking, Transitional, Ambivalence, and Recapitulation Summary Motivational and Behavioral Summary

There are four processes of MI. These are:

Engaging, Opening, Avoiding Traps, and Focusing Engaging, Closing, Avoiding Traps, and Focusing Non-engaging, opening, avoiding traps, and focusing Engaging Opening, Not avoiding traps, and not focusing

Common Traps include:

Expert, Labeling, Question-and-Answer, Premature focus, and Blaming Trap Motivational and Behavioral Trap Behavioral Trap Motivational Trap

Other strategies for evoking change talk are:

Eliciting importance of danger, exploring extremes, looking back, and looking forward Eliciting importance of danger, exploring extremes and looking forward only Eliciting importance of danger, looking forward and looking back only Eliciting extremes, importance of danger and looking forward

There are many ways to respond to sustain talk that acknowledge it without getting stuck in it. Some of these are:

Motivational Reflection Simple, amplified, double-sided reflections, agreement with a twist Motivational and behavioral Reflection Behavioral Reflection

According to Kanfer & Schefft (1988), this approach remains a staple of MI and is particularly useful with a client who is in the Precontemplation stage and needs to be in charge of the conversation. This approach is known as:

Columbo Approach Motivational Approach Behavioral Approach Combination of Motivational and Behavioral Approach