Aging and Long Term Care ( 3 Hours)

In the United States, the population age 65 and over numbered 49.2 million in 2016.  They represented ____ of the population.  About one in every seven Americans.

3.2% 7.2% 15.2% 23.2%

The population age 65 and over has increased from 37.2 million in 2006 to 49.2 million in 2016 (a 33% increase) and is projected to _____ in 2060.

Almost double to 98 million Almost triple to 147 million Decrease by 1/3 or 33% to 32 million Decrease by 1/2 to 24.6 million

Mild hearing loss can impair speech processing, particularly if speech is rapid or if multiple talkers in large rooms generate reverberant noise.  Increased social isolation mediates the observed associations between hearing loss and the following except:

Depression Cognitive decline Reduced quality of life Enuresis

By age 85, approximately 20% of people meet criteria for _______ (meaningful loss of muscle mass and strength.)

Myostatin-related muscle hypertrophy Au-Kline syndrome Sarcopenia Adermatoglyphia

Cardiovascular disease remains the most common cause of death of older adults.  This category includes the following except:

Chronic Karkinos Chronic ischemic heart disease Congestive heart failure Arrhythmia

Diabetes rates have been increasing as populations age and become more overweight.  Doing the following will help with the symptoms of diabetes except:

Regular foot examinations Regular walking Have individualized management approaches Increase calcium intake

Walking speed measurements can be used to predict future community abulation, falls, disability and risk of mortality.  The following are benefits to measurement of walking speed except:

It is quick It requires no special medical equipment It is supra-renal It adds no significant cost to clinical care

Falls account for more than half of injuries among older adults.  The following can be included as part of a multifactorial fall prevention program except:

Physical activity Vitamin D supplementation Balance exercise Echocardiogram

Frailty is defined a special vulnerability to stressors and is suggested by the following except:

Shyness Weakness Slowness Exhaustion

True or False?  Being married and being wealthy predict longer survival and the benefit of marriage seems stronger for men than women.

True False

Polypharmacy is defined as:

The use of different pharmacies to fill preblockedions The use of concomitant use of five or more medications by a single patient The use of too many medications for the same problem The use of multiple billings for each pharmacy

Hospitalizations are common among people over age 85 and associated with functional decline.  Providing more ________ in the home could help to prevent hospital complications such as functional decline and iatrogenic infection.

Socialization Entertainment Acute care Fast food delivery

Advance directives may enable patients to exert some control over their end of life care.  These directives can give instruction on the following except:

cardiopulmonary resuscitation mechanical ventilation tube feeding will bequests

True or False?  Depression is a normal part of aging.

True False

A depressed mood that last for at least two years…

Psychotic depression Persistent depressive disorder Seasonal affective disorder Bipolar disorder

If medications do not reduce the symptoms of depression, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) may be an option to explore.  The following statements about ECT are true except:

It is often performed on an outpatient basis. It is painful, and you can feel the electrical impulses The patient is awake and alert within one hour of treatment May cause some side effects, including confusion, disorientation, and memory loss

In this stage of Alzheimer’s Disease, damage occurs in areas of the brain that control language, reasoning, sensory processing, and conscious thought.  They may be unable to learn new things, carry out multistep tasks such as getting dressed, or cope with new situations.  People at this stage may have hallucinations, delusions, and paranoia and may behave impulsively.

Severe Alzheimer’s Disease Moderate Alzheimer’s Disease Mild Alzheimer’s Disease Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

The best time to think about long-term care is…

Before you need it Once you get sick After your family gets tired of taking care of you When your healthcare professional brings it up

Medicare is the federal government program that provides health care coverage (health insurance) if you are __ , under __ and receiving Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) for a certain amount of time, or under __ and with End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD).

67, 63, 65 62, 64, 67 65, 65, 65 62, 62, 62

 Elder abuse is a growing problem and can include all of the following except:

Physical or sexual abuse Emotional abuse or neglect Abandonment or financial exploitations Reverse mortgageconvalescit