HIV / AIDS Course

What is HIV?

A deadly virus that can now be treated and eradicated in the body A disease caused by an uncontrolled division of abnormal cells in a part of the body A virus that attacks cells that help the body fight infection A disease that affects the exocrine glands producing abnormal secretions

What is AIDS?

a. The late stage of HIV infection that occurs when the body’s immune system isbadly damaged b. A disease, even with treatment, that has an estimated 1 percent survival rate one year after diagnosis c. A chronic bacterial disease d. An abnormal buildup of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain because of HIV

In the U.S., most people with HIV do not develop AIDS because taking HIV medicine every day as prescribed stops the progression of the disease.  True or False? 

True False

HIV testing…

Is invasive and painful Should only be conducted if you exhibit symptoms of illness Is not necessary if you do not share needles Is relatively simple

HIV can be transmitted through all of the following except:

Blood and breast milk Semen (cum) and pre-seminal fluid Rectal and vaginal fluids Sweat

In the United States, the two most common ways of contracting HIV is through:

Having vaginal or anal sex with someone who has HIV; and sharing injection drug equipment, such as needles Sharing injection drug equipment, such as needles; and having oral sex Having oral sex; and receiving a blood transfusion Receiving a blood transfusion; and having vaginal or anal sex with someone who has HIV

People with HIV who take HIV medicine daily as prescribed and get and keep an undetectable viral load have effectively no risk of transmitting HIV to an HIV-negative partner through sex. True or False?

True False

Stage 2: Clinical Latency is described as a stage that/when…

Presents with flu-like symptoms that last several weeks The virus multiplies, but at very low levels and can last for 10 to 15 years Includes rapid weight loss, Pneumonia, memory loss and depression Requires the patient staying in bed all day either watching television or resting

 Approximately ______ million people in the U.S. are living with HIV today.  About ___ percent of them (____) are unaware they are infected.

10.1 million, 8 percent, 1 in 15 1.1 million, 15 percent, 1 in 7 2.5 million, 15 percent, 1 in 14 3.7 million, 10 percent, 1 in 23

The population most affected by HIV is/are:

Lesbian and bisexual women Heterosexual men Gay and bisexual men Bisexual women

 _______________ account for a higher proportion of new HIV diagnoses and people living with HIV, compared to other races/ethnicities.

Native Americans Asian Americans Blacks/African Americans Hispanics

 Viral suppression is when:

The virus reaches Stage 2, Clinical Latency There is a stoppage or reduction of discharge or secretion during sex The EVD gets in through broken skin, mucous membranes in the eyes, nose or mouth HIV medication reduces the amount of HIV in your blood to a very low level

Undetectable viral load is:

When you can stop taking your HIV medication daily because of the negligible levels of the virus When your viral load is so low that it doesn’t show up in a standard lab test A process that usually takes up to 4-5 years of treatment Usually manifested as elevated free t4 and suppressed TSH is no longer detected

Another (Other) prevention benefit(s) of taking HIV medication to achieve and maintain an undetectable viral load:

Psychosocial issues affect nutritional and medical treatment adherence. It may reduce HIV transmission risk for people who inject drugs You are never required by law to inform your sexual partner that you are HIV positive if you take your medication and you have an undetectable viral load Both a and b

What is PrEP, or pre-exposure prophylaxis?

Is an HIV prevention method in which people who don’t have HIV take HIV medicine daily to reduce their risk of getting HIV if they are exposed to the virus Is not able to stop HIV from taking hold and spreading throughout the body Is an HIV prevention method in which the risk of getting HIV from sex reduces by less than 50% Is not for gay/bisexual men or drug users who share needles or other equipment to inject drugs

What is PEP, or post-exposure prophylaxis?

Is an HIV medication that can be started up to 7 days after exposure to help prevent the HIV virus from taking hold in the body Is a short course of HIV medicines taken within the first 72 hours after possible exposure to HIV to prevent the virus from taking hold in the body Is HIV medication meant for regular use by people who may be exposed to HIV frequently Is not meant for sexual assault victims

If you are prescribed PEP, you will need to take the HIV medicines every day for ______.

7 days 28 days Four to six months The rest of your life

The HIV-negative person can try to protect themselves from HIV by all of the following except:

Use condoms and avoid receptive anal sex Reduce the number of sexual partners Take PEP 14 days after a possible HIV exposure Talk to a doctor about PrEP

The HIV-positive person can try to prevent transmitting HIV to an HIV-negative partner by all of the following except:

Take HIV medication Use condoms and get tested and treated for other STD’s Be the insertive partner during anal sex Never shares needles

It is recommended that sexually active gay and bisexual men who have more that one partner should be tested ____.

Every week Every 3 to 6 months Once a year As soon as they notice flu-like symptoms

Treatment guidelines from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recommend that a person living with HIV begin ART, antiretroviral therapy, _________.

After you have your medical team in place and have told your friends and family When you start showing symptoms associated with AIDS When you have received approval from your insurance company and have your finances in order As soon as possible after the diagnosis

Tips that may help a person take every dose of their HIV medication every day include:

Creating a routine, setting an alarm Trying a weekly or monthly pill box Keeping a daily log or using a calendar to keep track All of the above

 One of the most common mental health conditions that people living with HIV face is ________.

Depression Social anxiety Bipolar disorder Dissociative disorder

Some of the most common OIs, opportunistic infections, in people living with HIV in the U.S. are all of the following except:

Lime disease Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection Salmonella infection Candidiasis (thrush)

OIs are less common now than in the early days of HIV and AIDS when there was no treatment.  Today’s HIV medicine (called antiretroviral therapy or ART) reduce the amount of HIV in a person’s body and keep the immune system stronger. However, some people with HIV still develop OI’s for all of the following reasons except:

They do not know they have HIV and so they are not on treatment They know they have HIV but are not taking ART They were living with HIV for a long time before they were diagnosed and so have a weakened immune system Their detectable viral load is too low and they need their viral load numbers to increase

Some of the ways people living with HIV can reduce their risk of getting an OI include all of the following except:

Avoiding exposure to contaminated water and food Taking medicines to prevent certain OIs Getting vaccinated against some preventable infections Stop getting lab tests done so frequently to keep an undetectable viral load

 People living with HIV who are also infected with another STD are ______   likely as others living with HIV to spread HIV through sexual contact.

Less The same amount as 3 to 5 times as 10 times as

Gynecological problems are common among women living with HIV.  Some of the issues women may experience include all of the following except:

Problems related to sexually transmitted diseases, like genital herpes, pelvic inflammatory disease and chancroid can occur more often Trichinosis can occur more often with a periapical abscess Vaginal yeast infections can occur more often and may be harder to treat Bacterial vaginosis can occur more often and may be harder to treat

Today, thanks to improvements in treatment, __________ of people living with diagnosed HIV in the United States are aged 50 or older.

Five percent Almost a quarter About one-third Nearly half

Even though there are benefits to physical activity, HIV positive clients should be encouraged not to exercise or engage in physical activity because of the risks involved.  True or False?

True False

Before conducting any assessment or treatment, therapists and counselors should reassess their personal attitudes and experiences in working with HIV infected clients. Several ways in which to do this include all of the following except:

Examining the fear of vox populi Examining fears of infection Avoiding burnout Examining personal attitudes (e.g., countertransference and homophobia)

Countertransference is:

A set of thoughts, feelings, and beliefs experienced by a service provider that occurs in response to a client and generally subconscious Easily recognized in oneself and easily abated Overly identifying with the client Using a standard regimen on all clients

 _________ involves actions or words that imply or state that the presence of a gay man or lesbian hurts or discredits a social system.  The purpose is to hurt, demean, intimidate, or control, and to stop social change or acceptance of lesbians and gays with the social system.

Heterosexism Institutional homophobia Coming out Lesbian/gay baiting

Burnout often is referred to as “bereavement overload.” Unlike fatigue, burnout does not resolve after a given amount of rest and recreation. To help prevent burnout, agencies may include all of the following strategies except:

Assigning clearly specific duties Enlisting volunteer help from community organizations Allowing for “time out” activities Having fluid boundaries on professional obligations

Treatment providers must examine two essential factors when working with culturally, racially, or ethnically different populations; _____ and ______.

The culturally competent systems of care and the cause of the disease/illness Public health problems and the perceived disrespectful sexual discussions The socioeconomic status of the client or group and the client’s degree of acculturation Pathology and dysfunction and fear of contagion

A sudden increase in the use of ____________ by gay and bisexual men has become a matter of grave concern because the route of administration is injection. Combined with its disinhibiting and sexually stimulating effects, gay male injectors are at extremely high risk for HIV exposure.

Benzodiazepines, “bars,” “blues,” “planks,” or “zannies” Opioids, “brown sugar,” “horse,” “junk,” or “smack” Methamphetamine, “speed,” “crystal,” “ice,” or “crank” Hallucinogens, “acid,” “boomers,” “dots,” or “tab”

Guidelines for working with transgender clients include all of the following except:

Use the pronouns based on their self-identity when speaking to or about transgender individuals Allow transgender clients to continue the use of hormones when prescribed; advocate for the client who is using illegally prescribed hormones to receive immediate medical care and legally prescribed hormones Allow transgender clients to use appropriate bathrooms and showers based on their gender self-identity and gender role Assume all transgender clients are gay

Good practices include reminding HIV positive women that it is better for the client, for unborn children and society as a whole that HIV positive women should not have more children. True or False?

True False

All of the following are important statistics related to the U.S. Hispanic population that affect how outreach, prevention, and treatment planning should be conducted except.

Hispanics as a group may include aliens who are undocumented or carry immigrant visas and who avoid contact with the health care system because of fear of possible deportation 90 percent of Hispanics are Catholic Hispanics are overrepresented among HIV/AIDS cases for men, women, and children Hispanics have large families and large festive gatherings

The counseling of ill and dying clients should be supportive and nonconfrontational, addressing issues relevant to the client’s illness at a pace determined by the client. It is optimal, if possible to begin a discussion of the client’s future, including death, _______________.

Only when the client with HIV is diagnosed with AIDS Before the client is extremely ill When the client has a 3 – 6 month life expectancy None of the above