Substance Abuse > Chapter 2 - Drugs that Get Abuse

II. The Drugs that Get Abused

We'll begin with a look at the substances themselves that are most commonly abused. These are the drugs most people think of when the subject of substance abuse is mentioned. Some of the common names for these drugs include marijuana, Methamphetamines, barbiturates, Hallucinogens, etc.

A. Drug Chart

The following table from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA 0225) provides a breakdown of the more commonly abused drugs, slang names for them and their effects:

Substances: Category and Name Examples of Commercial and Street Names DEA Schedule*/ How Administered** Acute Effects/Health Risks
Tobacco Increased blood pressure and heart rate/chronic lung disease; cardiovascular disease; stroke; cancers of the mouth, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, cervix, kidney, bladder, and acute myeloid leukemia; adverse pregnancy outcomes; addiction
Nicotine Found in cigarettes,
cigars,bidis,and smokeless tobacco
(snuff,spit tobacco,chew)
Not scheduled
or smoked,
snorted,chewed
Alcohol In low doses,euphoria, mild stimulation, relaxation, lowered inhibitions; in higher doses, drowsiness, slurred speech, nausea, emotional volatility, loss of coordination, visual distortions, impaired memory, sexual dysfunction,loss of consciousness/ increased risk of injuries, violence,fetal damage (in pregnant women);depression; neurologic deficits; hypertension;liver and heart disease;addiction; fatal overdose
Alcohol
(ethyl alcohol)
Found in liquor, beer, and wine Not scheduled/
swallowed
Cannabinoids Euphoria; relaxation; slowed reaction time; distorted sensory perception; impaired balance and coordination; increased heart rate and appetite; impaired learning, memory; anxiety; panic attacks; psychosis/cough; frequent respiratory infections; possible mental health decline; addiction
Marijuana Blunt, dope, ganja, grass, herb, joint, bud, Mary Jane, pot, reefer, green, trees, smoke, sinsemilla, skunk, weed I/smoked,
swallowed
Hashish Boom, gangster, hash, hash oil, hemp I/smoked,
swallowed
Opioids Euphoria; drowsiness; impaired coordination; dizziness; confusion; nausea; sedation; feeling of heaviness in the body; slowed or arrested breathing/constipation; endocarditis; hepatitis; HIV; addiction; fatal overdose
Heroin Diacetylmorphine: smack, horse, brown sugar, dope, H, junk, skag, skunk, white horse, China white; cheese (with OTC cold medicine and antihistamine) I/injected,
smoked,
snorted
Opium Laudanum, paregoric: big O, black stuff, block, gum, hop II,III,V/
swallowed,
smoked
Stimulants Increased heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, metabolism; exhilaration; increased energy, mental alertness; tremors; reduced anxiety; panic; paranoia; violent behavior; psychosis/weight loss; cardiovascular complications; stroke; seizures; addiction
Also, for cocaine—nasal damage from snorting Also, for methamphetamine—severe dental problems
Cocaine Cocaine hydrochloride: blow, bump, C, candy, Charlie, coke, crack, flake, rock, snow, toot II/snorted,
smoked,
injected
Amphetamine Biphetamine, Dexedrine: bennies, black beauties, crosses, hearts, LA turnaround,speed, truck drivers, uppers II/swallowed,
snorted,
smoked,
injected
Methamphetamine Desoxyn: meth, ice, crank, chalk, crystal, fire, glass, go fast, speed II/swallowed,
snorted,
smoked,
injected
Club Drugs MDMA—mild hallucinogenic effects; increased tactile sensitivity, empathic feelings; lowered inhibition; anxiety; chills; sweating; teeth clenching; muscle cramping/ sleep disturbances; depression; impaired memory; hyperthermia; addiction Flunitrazepam—sedation; muscle relaxation; confusion; memory loss; dizziness; impaired coordination/addiction
GHB—drowsiness; nausea; headache; disorientation; loss of coordination; memory loss/ unconsciousness; seizures; coma
MDMA (methylene-
dioxy-
methamphet-
amine)
Ecstasy, Adam, clarity, Eve, lover’s speed, peace, uppers I/swallowed,
snorted,
injected
Flunitrazepam*** Rohypnol: forget-me pill, Mexican Valium, R2, roach, Roche, roofies, roofinol, rope, rophies IV/swallowed,
snorted
GHB*** Gamma-hydroxybutyrate: G, Georgia home boy, grievous bodily harm, liquid ecstasy, soap, scoop, goop, liquid X I/swallowed
Dissociative Drugs Feelings of being separate from one’s body and environment; impaired motor function/anxiety; tremors; numbness; memory loss; nausea Also, for ketamine— analgesia; impaired memory; delirium; respiratory depression and arrest; death

Also, for PCP and analogs—analgesia; psychosis; aggression; violence; slurred speech; loss of coordination; hallucinations





Also, for DXM—euphoria; slurred speech; confusion; dizziness; distorted visual perceptions
Ketamine




Ketalar SV: cat Valium, K, Special K, vitamin K III/injected,
snorted,
smoked
PCP and analogs

Phencyclidine: angel dust, boat, hog, love boat, peace pill I,II/swallowed,
smoked,
injected
Salvia divinorum Salvia, Shepherdess’s Herb, Maria Pastora, magic mint, Sally-D Not scheduled/
chewed,
swallowed,
smoked
Dextromethorphan (DXM) Found in some cough and cold medications: Robotripping, Robo, Triple C Not scheduled/
swallowed
Hallucinogens Altered states of perception and feeling; hallucinations; nausea
Also, for LSD and mescaline—increased body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure; loss of appetite; sweating; sleeplessness; numbness; dizziness; weakness; tremors; impulsive behavior; rapid shifts in emotion
Also, for LSD—Flashbacks, Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder Also, for psilocybin—nervousness; paranoia; panic
LSD Lysergic acid diethylamide: acid, blotter, cubes, microdot, yellow sunshine,blue heaven I/swallowed,
absorbed through
mouth tissues
Mescaline Buttons, cactus, mesc, peyote I/swallowed,
smoked
Psilocybin Magic mushrooms, #3E389D passion, shrooms, little smoke I/swallowed
Other Compounds Steroids—no intoxication effects/hypertension; blood clotting and cholesterol changes; liver cysts; hostility and aggression; acne; in adolescents––premature stoppage of growth; in males––prostate cancer, reduced sperm production, shrunken testicles, breast enlargement; in females––menstrual irregularities, development of beard and other masculine characteristics Inhalants (varies by chemical)—stimulation; loss of inhibition; headache; nausea or vomiting; slurred speech; loss of motor coordination; wheezing/cramps; muscle weakness; depression; memory impairment; damage to cardiovascular and nervous systems; unconsciousness; sudden death
Anabolic steroids Anadrol, Oxandrin, Durabolin, Depo-Testosterone, Equipoise: roids, juice, gym candy, pumpers III/injected,
swallowed,
applied to skin
Inhalants Solvents(paint thinners,gasoline,glues);
gases (butane, propane, aerosol propellants, nitrous oxide); nitrites (isoamyl, isobutyl, cyclohexyl): laughing gas, poppers, snappers, whippets
Not scheduled/
inhaled through
nose or mouth


* Schedule I and II drugs have a high potential for abuse. They require greater storage security and have a quota on manufacturing, among other restrictions. Schedule I drugs are available for research only and have no approved medical use; Schedule II drugs are available only by preblockedion (unrefillable) and require a form for ordering. Schedule III and IV drugs are available by preblockedion, may have five refills in 6 months, and may be ordered orally. Some Schedule V drugs are available over the counter.
** Some of the health risks are directly related to the route of drug administration. For example, injection drug use can increase the risk of infection through needle contamination with staphylococci, HIV, hepatitis, and other organisms.
*** Associated with sexual assaults.

[QN.No.1.The following fall under the category of stimulants:]
[QN.No.2.Which of the following is not a side effect of smoking marijuana:]
[QN.No.3."Magic Mushroom," "Purple Passion" and "Shrooms" are street names for which of the following:]

Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment
More than three decades of scientific research show that treatment can help drug-addicted individuals stop drug use, avoid relapse and successfully recover their lives. Based on this research, 13 fundamental principles that characterize effective drug abuse treatment have been developed. These principles are detailed in NIDA’s Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research-Based Guide. The guide also describes different types of science-based treatments and provides answers to commonly asked questions.
1. Addiction is a complex but treatable disease that affects brain function and behavior. Drugs alter the brain’s structure and how it functions, resulting in changes that persist long after drug use has ceased. This may help explain why abusers are at risk for relapse even after long periods of abstinence. 8. An individual’s treatment and services plan must be assessed continually and modified as necessary to ensure it meets his or her changing needs. A patient may require varying combinations of services and treatment components during the course of treatment and recovery. In addition to counseling or psychotherapy, a patient may require medication, medical services, family therapy, parenting instruction, vocational rehabilitation and/or social and legal services. For many patients, a continuing care approach provides the best results, with treatment intensity varying according to a person’s changing needs.
2. No single treatment is appropriate for everyone. Matching treatment settings, interventions, and services to an individual’s particular problems and needs is critical to his or her ultimate success. 9. Many drug-addicted individuals also have other mental disorders. Because drug abuse and addiction—both of which are mental disorders—often co-occur with other mental illnesses, patients presenting with one condition should be assessed for the other(s). And when these problems co-occur, treatment should address both (or all), including the use of medications as appropriate.
3. Treatment needs to be readily available. Because drug-addicted individuals may be uncertain about entering treatment, taking advantage of available services the moment people are ready for treatment is critical. Potential patients can be lost if treatment is not immediately available or readily accessible. 10. Medically assisted detoxification is only the first stage of addiction treatment and by itself does little to change long-term drug abuse. Although medically assisted detoxification can safely manage the acute physical symptoms of withdrawal, detoxification alone is rarely sufficient to help addicted individuals achieve long-term abstinence. Thus, patients should be encouraged to continue drug treatment following detoxification.
4. Effective treatment attends to multiple needs of the individual, not just his or her drug abuse. To be effective, treatment must address the individual’s drug abuse and any associated medical, psychological, social, vocational, and legal problems. 11. Treatment does not need to be voluntary to be effective. Sanctions or enticements from family, employment settings, and/or the criminal justice system can significantly increase treatment entry, retention rates, and the ultimate success of drug treatment interventions.
5. Remaining in treatment for an adequate period of time is critical. The appropriate duration for an individual depends on the type and degree of his or her problems and needs. Research indicates that most addicted individuals need at least 3 months in treatment to significantly reduce or stop their drug use and that the best outcomes occur with longer durations of treatment. 12. Drug use during treatment must be monitored continuously, as lapses during treatment do occur. Knowing their drug use is being monitored can be a powerful incentive for patients and can help them withstand urges to use drugs. Monitoring also provides an early indication of a return to drug use, signaling a possible need to adjust an individual’s treatment plan to better meet his or her needs.
6. Counseling—individual and/or group—and other behavioral therapies are the most commonly used forms of drug abuse treatment. Behavioral therapies vary in their focus and may involve addressing a patient’s motivations to change, building skills to resist drug use, replacing drug-using activities with constructive and rewarding activities, improving problemsolving skills, and facilitating better interpersonal relationships. 13. Treatment programs should assess patients for the presence of HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and C, tuberculosis, and other infectious diseases, as well as provide targeted risk-reduction counseling to help patients modify or change behaviors that place them at risk of contracting or spreading infectious diseases. Targeted counseling specifically focused on reducing infectious disease risk can help patients further reduce or avoid substance-related and other high-risk behaviors. Treatment providers should encourage and support HIV screening and inform patients that highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has proven effective in combating HIV, including among drug-abusing populations.
7. Medications are an important element of treatment for many patients, especially when combined with counseling and other behavioral therapies. For example, methadone and buprenorphine are effective in helping individuals addicted to heroin or other opioids stabilize their lives and reduce their illicit drug use. Also, for persons addicted to nicotine, a nicotine replacement product (nicotine patches or gum) or an oral medication (buproprion or varenicline), can be an effective component of treatment when part of a comprehensive behavioral treatment program.


You will notice that some of these drugs are legally available with a preblockedion but are used in a way contrary to what is prescribed, or the client may have manipulated the system to obtain more of the medication with the purpose of abusing it or satisy an addiction. This is especially common with pain medication with the elderly, and amphetamines for adolescents/young adults. Many stores limit the amount of cold medicine that can be purchased because of its amphetamine content. In some cases, illegal producers of methamphetamines send their customers out to different stores to buy the medicine in order to obtain the chemicals they need for making the drugs.

B. Drugs and athletics

Steroids are often prescribed for helping people with asthma, injury recovery and other medical reasons, but also used by athletes as performance enhancers. This is a good example of how much people are willing to risk their long term health for short term satisfaction. The use of steroids has filtered down to high school athletes in pursuit of greater physical achievement. Performance enhancers have made headlines for years in the track and field community and football, and the use of them by professional baseball players has become more publicized.

With the increasing popularity of steroid use it is important for the healthcare professional to know the effects of steroids. The following is provided by the National Institute of Drug Abuse:

What are anabolic steroids?

"A

nabolic steroids” is the familiar name for synthetic substances related to the male sex hormones (e.g., testosterone).They promote the growth of skeletal muscle (anabolic effects) and the development of male sexual characteristics (androgenic effects) in both males and females. The term “anabolic steroids” will be used throughout this report because of its familiarity, although the proper term for these compounds is “anabolic-androgenic steroids.”



[Qn.No.4.Which one is the familiar name for synthetic substances related to the male sex hormones?]

Anabolic steroids were developed in the late 1930s primarily to treat hypogonadism, a condition in which the testes do not produce sufficient testosterone for normal growth, development,and sexual functioning. The primary medical uses of these compounds are to treat delayed puberty, some types of impotence,and wasting of the body caused by HIV infection or other diseases.

During the 1930s, scientists discovered that anabolic steroids could facilitate the growth of skeletal muscle in laboratory animals, which led to abuse of the compounds first by bodybuilders and weightlifters and then by athletes in other sports. Steroid abuse has become so widespread in athletics that it can affect the outcome of sports contests.



Illicit steroids are often sold at gyms, competitions, and through mail order operations after being smuggled into this country. Most illegal steroids in the United States are smuggled from countries that do not require a preblockedion for the purchase of steroids. Steroids are also illegally diverted from U.S. pharmacies or synthesized in clandestine laboratories

What are steroidal supplements?

I

n the United States, supplements such as tetrahydrogestrinone(THG) and androstenedione (street name “Andro”) previously could be purchased legally without a preblockedion through many commercial sources, including health food stores. Steroidal supplements can be converted into testosterone or a similar compound in the body. Less is known about the side effects of steroidal supplements, but if large quantities of these compounds substantially increase testosterone levels in the body,then they also are likely to produce the same side effects as anabolic steroids themselves. The purchase of these supplements, with the notable exception of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), became illegal after the passage in 2004 of amendments to the Controlled Substances Act.

What is the scope of steroid use in the United States?

T

he 2005 Monitoring the Future study, a NIDA-funded survey of drug use among adolescents in middle and high schools across the United States, reported that past year use of steroids decreased significantly among 8th- and 10th-graders since peak use in 2000. Among 12th-graders, there was a different trend—from 2000 to 2004, past year steroid use increased,but in 2005 there was a significant decrease, from 2.5 percent to 1.5 percent.

Steroid abuse affects individuals of various ages. However, it is difficult to estimate the true prevalence of steroid abuse in the United States because many data sources that measure drug abuse do not include steroids.Scientific evidence indicates that anabolic steroid abuse among athletes may range between one and six percent.

Why do people abuse anabolic steroids?

O

ne of the main reasons people give for abusing steroids is to improve their athletic performance. Among athletes, steroid abuse has been estimated to be less that 6 percent according to surveys, but anecdotal information suggests more widespread abuse.Although testing procedures are now in place to deter steroid abuse among professional and Olympic athletes, new designer drugs constantly become available that can escape detection and put athletes willing to cheat one step ahead of testing efforts.This dynamic, however, may be about to shift if the saving of urine and blood samples for retesting at a future date becomes the standard. The high probability of eventual detection of the newer designer steroids, once the technology becomes available, plus the fear of retroactive sanctions, should give athletes pause.


[Qn.No.5.The risks of using Anabolic Steroids are so minimal that athletes can use them without risking their health.]



Another reason people give for taking steroids is to increase their muscle size or to reduce their body fat. This group includes people suffering from the behavioral syndrome called muscle dysmorphia, which causes them to have a distorted image of their bodies. Men with muscle dysmorphia think that they look small and weak, even if they are large and muscular. Similarly, women with this condition think that they look fat and flabby, even though they are actually lean and muscular.


[QN.No.6.The behavioral syndrome “muscle dysmorphia” may contribute to:]

Some people who abuse steroids to boost muscle size have experienced physical or sexual abuse. In one series of interviews with male weightlifters, 25 percent who abused steroids reported memories of childhood physical or sexual abuse. Similarly, female weightlifters who had been raped were found to be twice as likely to report use of anabolic steroids or another purported musclebuilding drug, compared with those who had not been raped. Moreover, almost all of those who had been raped reported that they markedly increased their bodybuilding activities after the attack. They believed that being bigger and stronger would discourage further attacks because men would find them either intimidating or unattractive.

Finally, some adolescents abuse steroids as part of a pattern of high-risk behaviors. These adolescents also take risks such as drinking and driving, carrying a gun, driving a motorcycle without a helmet, and abusing other illicit drugs. Conditions such as muscle dysmorphia, a history of physical or sexual abuse, or a history of engaging in high-risk behaviors have all been associated with an increased risk of initiating or continuing steroid abuse.

How are anabolic steroids abused?

S

ome anabolic steroids are taken orally, others are injected intramuscularly, and still others are provided in gels or creams that are applied to the skin. Doses taken by abusers can be 10 to 100 times higher than the doses used for medical conditions.

Cycling, stacking, and pyramiding

Steroids are often abused in patterns called “cycling,” which involve taking multiple doses of steroids over a specific period of time, stopping for a period, and starting again. Users also frequently combine several different types of steroids in a process known as “stacking.” Steroid abusers typically “stack” the drugs, meaning that they take two or more different anabolic steroids, mixing oral and/or injectable types, and sometimes even including compounds that are designed for veterinary use. Abusers think that the different steroids interact to produce an effect on muscle size that is greater than the effects of each drug individually, a theory that has not been tested scientifically.

Another mode of steroid abuse is referred to as “pyramiding.” This is a process in which users slowly escalate steroid abuse (increasing the number of steroids or the dose and frequency of one or more steroids used at one time), reaching a peak amount at mid-cycle and gradually tapering the dose toward the end of the cycle. Often, steroid abusers pyramid their doses in cycles of 6 to 12 weeks. At the beginning of a cycle, the person starts with low doses of the drugs being stacked and then slowly increases the doses. In the second half of the cycle, the doses are slowly decreased to zero. This is sometimes followed by a second cycle in which the person continues to train but without drugs. Abusers believe that pyramiding allows the body time to adjust to the high doses, and the drug-free cycle allows the body’s hormonal system time to recuperate. As with stacking, the perceived benefits of pyramiding and cycling have not been substantiated scientifically.



[Qn.No.7."Taking multiple doses of steroids over a specific period of time, stopping for a period, and starting again",this method of steroid abuse is known as:]


What are the health consequences of steroid abuse?

A

nabolic steroid abuse has been associated with a wide range of adverse side effects ranging from some that are physically unattractive, such as acne and breast development in men, to others that are life threatening, such as heart attacks and liver cancer. Most are reversible if the abuser stops taking the drugs, but some are permanent, such as voice deepening in females.

Most data on the long-term effects of anabolic steroids in humans come from case reports rather than formal epidemiological studies. From the case reports, the incidence of lifethreatening effects appears to be low, but serious adverse effects may be underrecognized or underreported, especially since they may occur many years later. Data from animal studies seem to support this possibility. One study found that exposing male mice for one-fifth of their lifespan to steroid doses comparable to those taken by human athletes caused a high frequency of early deaths.

Hormonal system

Steroid abuse disrupts the normal production of hormones in the body, causing both reversible and irreversible changes. Changes that can be reversed include reduced sperm production and shrinking of the testicles (testicular atrophy). Irreversible changes include male-pattern baldness and breast development (gynecomastia) in men. In one study of male bodybuilders, more than half had testicular atrophy and/or gynecomastia.

In the female body, anabolic steroids cause masculinization. Breast size and body fat decrease, the skin becomes coarse, the clitoris enlarges, and the voice deepens. Women may experience excessive growth of body hair but lose scalp hair. With continued administration of steroids, some of these effects become irreversible.

Musculoskeletal system

Rising levels of testosterone and other sex hormones normally trigger the growth spurt that occurs during puberty and adolescence and provide the signals to stop growth as well. When a child or adolescent takes anabolic steroids, the resulting artificially high sex hormone levels can prematurely signal the bones to stop growing.

Cardiovascular system

Steroid abuse has been associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including heart attacks and strokes, even in athletes younger than 30. Steroids contribute to the development of CVD, partly by changing the levels of lipoproteins that carry cholesterol in the blood. Steroids, particularly oral steroids, increase the level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and decrease the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). High LDL and low HDL levels increase the risk of atherosclerosis, a condition in which fatty substances are deposited inside arteries and disrupt blood flow. If blood is prevented from reaching the heart, the result can be a heart attack. If blood is prevented from reaching the brain, the result can be a stroke.

Steroids also increase the risk that blood clots will form in blood vessels, potentially disrupting blood flow and damaging the heart muscle so that it does not pump blood effectively.

Liver

Steroid abuse has been associated with liver tumors and a rare condition called peliosis hepatis, in which blood-filled cysts form in the liver. Both the tumors and the cysts can rupture, causing internal bleeding.

[Qn.No.8.Steroid abuse cause liver tumors in which blood-filled cysts form in the liver is known as:]

Skin

Steroid abuse can cause acne, cysts, and oily hair and skin.

Infections

Many abusers who inject anabolic steroids may use nonsterile injection techniques or share contaminated needles with other abusers. In addition, some steroid preparations are manufactured illegally under nonsterile conditions. These factors put abusers at risk for acquiring lifethreatening viral infections, such as HIV and hepatitis B and C. Abusers also can develop endocarditis, a bacterial infection that causes a potentially fatal inflammation of the inner lining of the heart. Bacterial infections also can cause pain and abscess formation at injection sites.

What effects do anabolic steroids have on behavior?

C

ase reports and small studies indicate that anabolic steroids, when used in high doses, increase irritability and aggression. Some steroid abusers report that they have committed aggressive acts, such as physical fighting or armed robbery, theft, vandalism, or burglary. Abusers who have committed aggressive acts or property crimes generally report that they engage in these behaviors more often when they take steroids than when they are drug free. A recent study suggests that the mood and behavioral effects seen during anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse may result from secondary hormonal changes.

Scientists have attempted to test the association between anabolic steroids and aggression by administering high steroid doses or placebo for days or weeks to human volunteers and then asking the people to report on their behavioral symptoms. To date, four such studies have been conducted. In three, high steroid doses did produce greater feelings of irritability and aggression than did placebo, although the effects appear to be highly variable across individuals. In one study, the drugs did not have that effect. One possible explanation, according to the researchers, is that some but not all anabolic steroids increase irritability and aggression. Recent animal studies show an increase in aggression after steroid administration.

In a few controlled studies, aggression or adverse, overt behaviors resulting from the administration of anabolic steroid use have been reported by a minority of volunteers.

In summary, the extent to which steroid abuse contributes to violence and behavioral disorders is unknown. As with the health complications of steroid abuse, the prevalence of extreme cases of violence and behavioral disorders seems to be low, but it may be underreported or underrecognized.

Possible Health Consequences of
Anabolic Steroid Abuse
  • Hormonal system
    • men
      • infertility
      • breast development
      • shrinking of the testicles
      • male-pattern baldness
    • women
      • enlargement of the clitoris
      • excessive growth of body hair
      • male-pattern baldness
  • Musculoskeletal system
    • short stature (if taken by adolescents)
    • tendon rupture
  • Cardiovascular system
    • increases in LDL;decreases in HDL
    • high blood pressure
    • heart attacks
    • enlargement of the heart’s left ventricle
  • Liver
    • cancer
    • peliosis hepatis
    • tumors
  • Skin
    • severe acne and cysts
    • oily scalp
    • jaundice
    • fluid retention
  • Infection
    • hepatitis
    • HIV/AIDS
  • Psychiatric effects
    • rage, aggression
    • mania
    • delusions

Research also indicates that some users might turn to other drugs to alleviate some of the negative effects of anabolic steroids. For example, a study of 227 men admitted in 1999 to a private treatment center for addiction to heroin or other opioids found that 9.3 percent had abused anabolic steroids before trying any other illicit drug. Of these 9.3 percent, 86 percent first used opioids to counteract insomnia and irritability resulting from anabolic steroids.

Are anabolic steroids addictive?

A

n undetermined percent- age of ster oid abusers may become addicted to the drugs, as evidenced by their continued abuse despite physical problems and negative effects on social r elations. Also, ster oid abusers typically spend large amounts of time and money obtaining the drugs, which is another indication that they may be addicted. Individuals who abuse ster oids can experience withdrawal symptoms when they stop taking steroids, such as mood swings, fatigue, r estless- ness, loss of appetite, insomnia, reduced sex drive, and steroid cravings. The most dangerous of the withdrawal symptoms is depression, because it sometimes leads to suicide attempts. If left untr eated, some depr essive symptoms associated with anabolic steroid withdrawal have been known to persist for a year or more after the abuser stops taking the drugs.

What can be done to prevent steroid abuse?

M

ost prevention efforts in the United States today focus on athletes involved with the Olympics and professional sports; few school districts test for abuse of illicit drugs. It has been estimated that close to 9 percent of secondary schools conduct some sort of drug testing program, presumably focused on athletes, and that less than 4 percent of the Nation’s high schools test their athletes for steroids. Studies are currently under way to determine whether such testing reduces drug abuse.

Research on steroid educational programs has shown that simply teaching students about steroids’ adverse effects does not convince adolescents that they can be adversely affected. Nor does such instruction discourage young people from taking steroids in the future. Presenting both the risks and benefits of anabolic steroid use is more effective in convincing adolescents about steroids’ negative effects, apparently because the students find a balanced approach more credible, according to the researchers.

NIDA-funded prevention research helps reduce steroid abuse.

A

more sophisticated approach has shown promise for preventing steroid abuse among players on high school sports teams. The Adolescents Training and Learning to Avoid Steroids (A TLAS) program is showing high school football players that they do not need steroids to build powerful muscles and improve athletic performance.By educating student athletes about the harmful effects of anabolic steroids and providing nutrition and weight-training alternatives to steroid use, the ATLAS program has increased football players’ healthy behaviors and reduced their intentions to abuse steroids. In the program, coaches and team leaders teach the harmful effects of anabolic steroids and other illicit drugs on immediate sports performance,and discuss how to refuse offers of drugs.Studies show that 1 year after completion of the program,compared with a control group,ATLAS-trained students in 15 high schools had:

  • Half the incidence of new abuse of anabolic steroids and less intention to abuse them in the future;
  • Less abuse of alcohol, marijuana, amphetamines, and narcotics;
  • Less abuse of “athletic enhancing” supplements;
  • Less likelihood of engaging in hazardous substance abuse behaviors such as drinking and driving;
  • Increased protection against steroid and other substance abuse. Namely, less interest in trying steroids, less desire to abuse them, better knowledge of alternatives to steroid abuse, improved body image, and increased knowledge of diet supplements.

The Athletes Targeting Healthy Exercise and Nutrition Alternatives (ATHENA) program was patterned after the ATLAS program, but designed for adolescent girls on sports teams. Early testing of girls enrolled in the ATHENA program showed significant decreases in risky behaviors. While preseason risk behaviors were similar among controls and ATHENA participants, the control athletes were three times more likely to begin using diet pills and almost twice as likely to begin abuse of other body-shaping substances, including amphetamines, anabolic steroids, and muscle-building supplements during the sports season. The use of diet pills increased among control subjects, while use fell to approximately half of the preseason levels among ATHENA participants. In addition, ATHENA team members were less likely to be sexually active, more likely to wear seat- belts, less likely to ride in a car with a driver who had been drinking, and they experienced fewer injuries during the sports season.



[Qn.No.9.Training program for preventing steroid abuse among adolescent girls on sports teams is:]

Both Congress and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration have endorsed ATLAS and ATHENA as model prevention programs. These Oregon Health & Science University programs have been awarded the 2006 annual Sports Illustrated magazine’s first-ever “Champion Award.”

What treatments are effective for anabolic steroid abuse?

F

ew studies of treatments for anabolic steroid abuse have been conducted. Current knowledge is based largely on the experiences of a small number of physicians who have worked with patients undergoing steroid withdrawal. The physi- cians have found that supportive therapy is suf ficient in some cases. Patients are educated about what they may experience during withdrawal and are evaluated for suicidal thoughts. If symptoms are severe or pro- longed, medications or hospital- ization may be needed.

Some medications that have been used for treating steroid withdrawal restore the hormonal system after its disruption by steroid abuse. Other medications target specific withdrawal symp- toms—for example, antidepres- sants to tr eat depr ession and analgesics for headaches and muscle and joint pains.

Some patients require assis- tance beyond pharmacological treatment of withdrawal symp- toms and are treated with behavioral therapies.

Where can I get further scientific information about steroid abuse?

T

o learn more about anabolic steroids and other drugs of abuse, contact the National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information (NCADI) at 800-729-6686. Information specialists are available to help you locate information and resources. Fact sheets, including InfoFacts, on the health effects of anabolic steroids, other drugs of abuse, and other drug topics are available on the NIDA Web site (www.drugabuse.gov), and can be ordered free of charge in English and Spanish from NCADI at www.health.org.

Access information on the Internet
  • What’s new on the NIDA Web site
  • Information on drugs of abuse
  • Publications and communications (including NIDA NOTES)
  • Calendar of events
  • Links to NIDA organizational units
  • Funding information (including program announcements and deadlines)
  • International activities
  • Links to related Web sites (access to Web sites of many other organizations in the field)
NIDA Web Sites
www.drugabuse.gov
www.steroidabuse.gov
www.clubdrugs.gov
www.hiv.drugabuse.gov
www.inhalant.drugabuse.gov
NCADI
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In addition to steroids other drugs are used as performance enhancers or become part of a sports sub-culture. In listening to sports talk show programs or reading various news sources, it is a not so unspoken belief that in addition to steroids, a drug of choice for baseball players is "speed" (Methamphetamines) , attributing its use to the grind of a 162 game season. For basketball, marijuana seems to be most commonly associated and some believe it to be used by a wide array of players. With sports being such a large part of our culture, and drug use allegedly being wide spread in some sports, the public spread of drug use has become a larger part of our culture than it was previously. That does not mean more people are using, however.
 
Substance Abuse > Chapter 2 - Drugs that Get Abuse
Page Last Modified On: April 18, 2015, 11:46 AM